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PLoS ONE:黑暗生长促使果蝇基因变异

来源:未知 编辑:admin 发布时间:2017-08-15

果蝇本是一种昼行性昆虫,为了调查生物对环境的适应能力,京都大学从1954年开始,一直在黑暗环境中饲养果蝇,已培育了约1400代。现在,研究人员通过最新实验发现,被长期饲养在黑暗环境中的果蝇,促进解毒的基因会出现变异。他们认为,果蝇有可能通过增强对毒性的抵抗力,更加适应在黑暗环境中生活。相关成果发表在新一期美国在线杂志《公共科学图书馆·综合》上。

在本项研究中,京大研究员布施直之率领的研究小组解读了20只雄性果蝇的基因组,然后与普通果蝇进行比较。他们发现在约1.4万个基因中,有241个出现了变异并被遗传下来。而在出现变异的基因中,有很多负责合成酶以排出进入果蝇体内的毒素。研究小组认为雌性果蝇体内存在同样的变异。

此外,研究人员在调查果蝇寿命时,发现普通的雌性果蝇在产卵后或突然被放到黑暗处饲养寿命会缩短,但是长期在黑暗中生活的果蝇,产卵后也能存活很长时间。布施直之指出:“对黑暗环境和毒性的耐受性可能与寿命有关。”

除了京都大学,本次的研究机构还有日本国立遗传学研究所、美国哈佛大学,研究小组准备进一步调查基因变异的影响,弄清变异的机制。(生物帮bio1000.com)

原文摘要:

genome Features of “Dark-Fly”, a Drosophila Line Reared Long-Term in a Dark Environment

Organisms are remarkably adapted to diverse environments by specialized metabolisms, morphology, or behaviors. To address the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation, we have utilized a Drosophila melanogaster line, termed “Dark-fly”, which has been maintained in constant dark conditions for 57 years (1400 generations). We found that Dark-fly exhibited higher fecundity in dark than in light conditions, indicating that Dark-fly possesses some traits advantageous in darkness. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we determined the whole genome sequence of Dark-fly and identified approximately 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 4,700 insertions or deletions (InDels) in the Dark-fly genome compared to the genome of the Oregon-R-S strain, a control strain. 1.8% of SNPs were classified as non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs: i.e., they alter the amino acid sequence of gene products). Among them, we detected 28 nonsense mutations (i.e., they produce a stop codon in the protein sequence) in the Dark-fly genome. These included genes encoding an olfactory receptor and a light receptor. We also searched runs of homozygosity (ROH) regions as putative regions selected during the population history, and found 21 ROH regions in the Dark-fly genome. We identified 241 genes carrying nsSNPs or InDels in the ROH regions. These include a cluster of alpha-esterase genes that are involved in detoxification processes. Furthermore, analysis of structural variants in the Dark-fly genome showed the deletion of a gene related to fatty acid metabolism. Our results revealed unique features of the Dark-fly genome and provided a list of potential candidate genes involved in environmental adaptation.

作者:keeii 点击:

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